Our ability to recognize faces is a complex interplay of environment, neurobiology, and contextual cues. Now a study from Harvard Medical School suggests that country-to-country variations in sociocultural dynamics — notably the degree of gender equality in each — can yield marked differences in men’s and women’s ability to recognize famous faces.The findings, published Nov. 29 in Scientific Reports, reveal that men living in countries with high gender equality — Scandinavian and certain Northern European nations — accurately identify the faces of female celebrities nearly as well as women. Men living in countries with lower gender equality, such as India or Pakistan, fare worse than both their Scandinavian peers and women in their own country on the same task. U.S. males, the study found, fall somewhere in between, a finding that aligns closely with America’s mid-range score on the United Nations’ Gender Inequality Index.The results are based on scores from web-based facial recognition tests of nearly 3,000 participants from the U.S. and eight other countries, and suggest that sociocultural factors can shape the ability to discern individual characteristics over broad categories. They suggest that men living in countries with low gender equality are prone to cognitive “lumping” that obscures individual differences when it comes to recognizing female faces.“Our study suggests that whom we pay attention to appears to be, at least in part, fueled by our culture, and how and whom we choose to categorize varies by the sociocultural context we live in,” said study senior investigator Joseph DeGutis, Harvard Medical School assistant professor of psychiatry and a researcher at VA Boston Healthcare System.“Our findings underscore how important social and cultural factors are in shaping our cognition and in influencing whom we recognize and whom we do not,” said study first author Maruti Mishra, a research fellow in DeGutis’ lab. “Culture and society have the power to shape how we see the world.”The team’s findings showed that men living in the U.S. performed better when asked to identify famous male politicians, actors, or athletes than when they were asked to identify famous female politicians, actors, or athletes, and they fared worse than women in identifying famous female celebrities. Men from countries such as Norway, Denmark, and Finland — all of which have high levels of gender equality — performed equally well in recognizing famous male faces and famous female faces. On the other hand, men living in countries with low gender equality — India, Brazil, and Pakistan, among others — performed worse than U.S. men and worse still than Scandinavian men in identifying famous women. The study suggests that men living in countries with low gender equality are prone to cognitive “lumping” that obscures individual differences when it comes to recognizing female faces. The Daily Gazette Sign up for daily emails to get the latest Harvard news. The Gender Inequality Index measures the level of a country’s gender inequality by accounting for things such as the status of women’s reproductive health, education, economic status, and participation and attainment of high-level positions in the workforce. The U.S. scored in the mid-range in 2014-2015, with a score of 0.21, compared with 0.05 for Scandinavian countries, and 0.49 for countries such as India, Pakistan or Egypt.For the study, the researchers asked nearly 2,773 adults, ages 18 to 50, to look at a series of famous faces online and identify them. Participants included 2,295 U.S. men and women; 203 men and women from Denmark, the Netherlands, Finland, and Norway; and 275 men and women from India, Egypt, Brazil, Pakistan, and Indonesia. The celebrity faces were almost exclusively those of U.S. politicians, actors, athletes, and performers. To ensure that U.S. participants didn’t have an unfair advantage over their foreign peers, the researchers only analyzed results from international participants who had indicated they were familiar with or had seen the celebrities’ faces before.Overall, male celebrity faces were recognized with 8 percent greater accuracy than female celebrity faces by both men and women, regardless of where they lived. The one notable exception was women from countries with lower gender equality, who performed better at identifying female celebrities than at identifying male celebrities.But the truly intriguing differences emerged when researchers analyzed each gender’s accuracy in recognizing famous female celebrities.In the U.S. sample, female participants had, on average, 7 percent higher scores than their male counterparts in recognizing the faces of famous women. Gender differences were also pronounced among participants from Pakistan, India, Brazil and Egypt. In those countries, women scored on average 10 percent higher on female celebrity recognition than men. In contrast, among participants from the Netherlands, Norway, Finland, and Denmark, test score differences in recognizing famous women’s faces were minuscule, less than 2 percent.The researchers say the pronounced own-gender bias among males is a variation of other forms of perceptual bias that have been documented in past research. For example, research shows that people tend to overlook interpersonal variations in the faces of people from races other than their own — the so-called “other race” effect. Another manifestation of this is the bias toward noticing interpersonal variations in individuals who are higher on the workplace hierarchy but obscuring interpersonal differences among those who rank lower on totem pole. The classic example is forgetting the name or other individual characteristics of a lower-rung coworker or intern, but remembering the name or distinguishing characteristics of someone higher up.“All these biases stem from a tendency to categorize rather than individualize,” DeGutis said.Self-awareness is the first step to combating own-gender bias, the researchers said. Previous research suggests that practicing individualizing members of other races rather than lumping them into categories can seriously mitigate the other-race effect.“Own-gender bias is a form of unconscious bias,” DeGutis said. “But by becoming aware of it, we can overcome it or at least minimize it.” The researchers acknowledge the study has a few limitations, including the use of binary gender designations rather than a continuous gender spectrum.Co-investigators included Jirapat Likitlersuang, Jeremy Wilmer, Sarah Cohan, and Laura Germine.The research was supported by the National Institutes of Health’s National Eye Institute (grant R01EY026057).
Advertisement Metro Sport ReporterFriday 9 Oct 2020 6:49 pmShare this article via facebookShare this article via twitterShare this article via messengerShare this with Share this article via emailShare this article via flipboardCopy link14.9kShares Dani Ceballos has become a key part of Arsenal’s midfield under Mikel Arteta (Getty)Mikel Arteta played a key role in convincing Arsenal’s hierarchy to re-sign Dani Ceballos on loan, according to reports in Spain.Ceballos spent last season on loan with the Gunners and played a key role in Mikel Arteta’s midfield once the campaign restarted after lockdown.The midfielder, who helped Arsenal win the FA Cup at the end of last term, returned to Real Madrid in the summer but quickly discovered that he was not part of Zinedine Zidane’s first-team plans once again.Arsenal were keen to re-sign Ceballos on a loan deal which included an option to buy, but Real Madrid were unwilling to agree to the Gunners’ proposal.AdvertisementAdvertisementADVERTISEMENTAccording to Marca, Arteta was so concerned about potentially missing out on signing Ceballos that he intervened and convinced Arsenal’s hierarchy to agree to a loan deal on Madrid’s terms.Ceballos, meanwhile, revealed this week that he had already told Arteta before returning to Madrid that he was keen on extending his stay at Arsenal.‘People always say the first year is one of transition, but after the lockdown we saw the Dani Ceballos we all wanted, with the arrival of Mikel, we know the team improved,’ said Ceballos. Comment Dani Ceballos helped Arsenal win the FA Cup last season (AP)‘I found a position which isn’t usual for me, a bit more defensive. The Premier League takes you to the limit both physically and technically. I think I’ve improved a lot over the last six months.‘After the season I spoke to Jose Angel Sanchez [Madrid’s CEO] and I told him I’d spoken to Mikel about staying at Arsenal, they told me to wait for a month for the team come back and take a decision, but my idea was clear to return to my club where I’d ended well with the boss’s confidence.More: FootballRio Ferdinand urges Ole Gunnar Solskjaer to drop Manchester United starChelsea defender Fikayo Tomori reveals why he made U-turn over transfer deadline day moveMikel Arteta rates Thomas Partey’s chances of making his Arsenal debut vs Man City‘You look at what’s coming next summer, the Euros and Olympics, you need an important role in your team and after the lockdown I found the role I’d been looking for in recent years with Mikel.‘When a player is totally happy, personally and footballistically, you find the right position on and off the pitch. I decided to stay for another year.‘I was totally happy, and I could develop my game in a totally natural way.’Follow Metro Sport across our social channels, on Facebook, Twitter and Instagram.For more stories like this, check our sport page. Mikel Arteta made special request to Arsenal board over Dani Ceballos loan Advertisement
New Delhi : World Cup returnees Fabian Allen, Nicholas Pooran and Oshane Thomas have been handed West Indies central contracts for the first time while seven players have been given all-format contracts.The number of all-format contracts for the men has now increased from four to seven with Darren Bravo, Shimron Hetmyer and Keemo Paul joining those in the Test and ODI formats — captain Jason Holder, Shai Hope, Alzarri Joseph and Kemar Roach — on the list.In total, 19 men have been retained for the upcoming contract year which runs from July 1 this year to June 30 next year including first-timers Allen, Pooran and Thomas who were part of the West Indies team which finished ninth out of 10 teams in the World Cup.Meanwhile, 15 women an increase of three have also earned central contracts including veteran all-rounder Stacy-Ann King, fellow left-hander Kycia Knight and newcomers Shabika Gajnabi, Shawnisha Hector, Chinelle Henry, Natasha McLean and Karishma Ramharack.Cricket West Indies (CWI) policy allows up to 22 contracts to be offered each contract year to men’s players, so the selection panel may decide to offer additional central contracts throughout the year.CWI director of cricket Jimmy Adams said verbal offers had been made to all players, and contracts will be issued in the next few weeks, as soon as the board has concluded a new four-year Memorandum of Understanding with the West Indies Players Association.This is the third year that CWI will award central contracts to West Indies men under three different categories.WEST INDIES MEN CENTRALLY-CONTRACTED PLAYERS 2019-20:All-Format Contracts:Darren Bravo, Shimron Hetmyer, Jason Holder, Shai Hope, Alzarri Joseph, Keemo Paul, Kemar RoachRed-Ball Contracts: Kraigg Brathwaite, John Campbell, Roston Chase, Shane Dowrich, Shannon Gabriel, Jomel WarricanWhite-Ball Contracts: Fabian Allen, Carlos Brathwaite, Sheldon Cottrell, Nicholas Pooran, Rovman Powell, Oshane Thomas. For all the Latest Sports News News, Cricket News News, Download News Nation Android and iOS Mobile Apps.