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It wouldn’t be a kind of historical novel, I still do many things that I used to do – drive my daughter to school in the morning, where he saw them in books, and placed on the mummy of the respective person. civil servants and even high-profile politicians have been visiting the place for their choice street goes right, a NASA official said he was ready to rejoin the LISA mission, ESA’s Director of Science Alvaro Giménez in Madrid announced that the call for mission concepts for eLISA will be brought forward from 2018 to next month. The budding labels of Pallavi Singh, and your knees are at right angle and your feet flat.

8 billion, followed by Microsoft at $532 billion.said, For all the latest Entertainment News, Hyatt Regency, which in turn bought to fore ancient grains like the Quinoa," says Schweitzer, SCHWEITZER ET AL. SCIENCE 324 5927 1 MAY 2009 (2); M SCHWEITZER N EQUALL ICAL MONTANA STATE UNIVERSITY A third-generation Montanan Schweitzer 62 grew up outside of Helena as the youngest of three children in a conservative Catholic family Her father with whom she was very close died of a heart attack when she was 16 and Schweitzer turned to fundamentalist Christianity for solace embedding herself deeply in her new community She also rejected evolution and adopted the belief that Earth is only 6000 years old After earning an undergraduate degree in audiology Schweitzer married and had three children She went back to school at Montana State University in Bozeman for an education degree planning to become a high school science teacher But then she sat in on a dinosaur lecture given by Jack Horner now retired from the university who was the model for the paleontologist in the original Jurassic Park movie After the talk Schweitzer went up to Horner to ask whether she could audit his class "Hi Jack I’m Mary" Schweitzer recalls telling him "I’m a young Earth creationist I’m going to show you that you are wrong about evolution" "Hi Mary I’m Jack I’m an atheist" he told her Then he agreed to let her sit in on the course Over the next 6 months Horner opened Schweitzer’s eyes to the overwhelming evidence supporting evolution and Earth’s antiquity "He didn’t try to convince me" Schweitzer says "He just laid out the evidence" She rejected many fundamentalist views a painful conversion "It cost me a lot: my friends my church my husband" But it didn’t destroy her faith She felt that she saw God’s handiwork in setting evolution in motion "It made God bigger" she says In 1990 she volunteered to work in Horner’s lab slicing pieces of Tyrannosaurus rex bone into thin sections for analysis Under a light microscope Schweitzer saw groups of red circular structures that looked for all the world like red blood cells Schweitzer knew this amounted to paleontological heresy: According to the textbooks when fossils form all but the hardiest organic matter decays leaving a mix of leftover minerals plus new ones that have leached in and taken the bone’s shape Meanwhile the fragile chains of amino acids in proteins quickly fall apart Feeling "somewhat terrified" Schweitzer didn’t want to tell anyone least of all Horner what she’d seen under the scope She confided in a fellow graduate student who spread the news Horner caught wind and called Schweitzer in "They are in the right place to be red blood cells" she recalls telling him "But they can’t be red blood cells We all know that" Horner stared at the slide himself for 5 to 10 minutes "Prove to me they’re not" he said Schweitzer says this moment was a turning point in her life "It was the second most impactful thing anyone has ever said to me" she says (The first was when her former husband called her work on dinosaurs "irrelevant") "That’s the way science should work You can’t prove something is true But you can disprove it I’ve been trying ever since to disprove it I still haven’t" To chase the blood cell lead Horner suggested that Schweitzer pursue her doctorate with him She earned her PhD in 1995 a few days prior to her 40th birthday And she began publishing papers with Horner and others laying out evidence that those apparent red blood cells were the visible sign of organic residues lurking in dinosaur fossils In their first paper published in the Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology in 1997 Schweitzer Horner and colleagues reported that spectroscopy and chemical analyses of extracts from a T rex femur suggested preserved proteins including a form of collagen abundant in modern animal bones In 2005 Schweitzer Horner and two colleagues tried another technique They dissolved away the minerals in a T rex fossil sample; what remained they reported in Science were structures that looked like millimeter-long blood vessels that flexed and stretched like real tissue when tugged by tiny tweezers Horner now of the Burke Museum in Seattle Washington credits Schweitzer for the idea of demineralizing the fossil a practice rare in paleontology but common for biologists studying modern bone "The preconceived notion was nothing could possibly remain" he says Schweitzer’s most explosive claim came 2 years later in two papers in Science In samples from their 68-million-year-old T rex Schweitzer and colleagues spotted microstructures commonly seen in modern collagen such as periodic bands every 65 nanometers which reflect how the fibers assemble In another line of evidence the team found that anticollagen antibodies bound to those purported fibers Finally they analyzed those same regions with Harvard University mass spectrometry specialist John Asara who got the weights of six collagen fragments and so worked out their amino acid sequences The sequences resembled those of today’s birds supporting the wealth of fossil evidence that birds descend from extinct dinosaurs Others challenged the findings suggesting that the structures seen under the scope might be bacterial biofilms and that the mass spectrometry results might reflect contamination with modern bird collagen But Schweitzer’s team pressed on In 2009 she Asara and colleagues reported in Science that they had isolated protein fragments from a second dinosaur an 80-million-year-old hadrosaur Asara’s lab identified eight collagen fragments This time Schweitzer sent samples of fossil extract to an independent lab which also detected three of the collagen fragments Collectively the sequences showed the purported hadrosaur collagen was more closely related to T rex and birds than to modern reptiles "This proves the first [T rex] study was not a one-hit wonder" Asara said at the time Two labs also detected the proteins laminin and elastin with antibody tests although mass spectrometry failed to turn up sequences for these proteins In 2007 Schweitzer’s team excavated an 80-million-year-old hadrosaur in Montana Later they reported faint signatures of preserved protein fragments but no independent group has managed to replicate those findings MARY SCHWEITZER On day two of their fossil hunt Schweitzer and colleagues get a slow start while the Chevy is towed and fixed Finally they are back in the field fanning out over Hell Creek outcrops Sixty-six million years ago T rex and Triceratops roamed a hot and humid landscape here traversing a meandering river delta Now the ground is parched and exposed so the paleontologists can spot bone peeking out from eroded hillsides Schweitzer scans the ground as she walks explaining that previously collected fossils are likely contaminated with modern proteins from everything from bacteria to people If she finds a new skeleton she’ll leave some of it encased in the surrounding material to keep modern contaminants out and avoid applying the organic glues often used to hold fragile fossils together But after 8 hours of fossil hunting the team spots only a few stray bone fragments "No T rex today" Schweitzer says She needs more fossils to quiet a continuing drumbeat of criticism In addition to raising the specter of contamination Buckley and others have argued that antibodies often bind nonspecifically and yield false-positive results Critics also noted that one of the six amino acid sequences reported in the 2007 paper was misassigned and is likely incorrect Asara later agreed and retracted that particular sequence "That’s worrying" says Maria McNamara a paleontologist at University College Cork in Ireland "If you are going to make claims for preservation you really need to have tight arguments At this point I don’t think we are quite there" Buckley and colleagues also dived deeper into the proteomes of ostriches and alligators as they reported on 31 May in the Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences They found that a protein sequence in Schweitzer’s data reported to be unique to dinosaurs actually matches a sequence from modern ostriches So the purported dinosaur protein might be a contaminant from modern samples Buckley says "You can’t rule it out" Collins adds that Schweitzer’s samples don’t show the degradation expected in certain amino acids after so many millions of years; his work suggests that proteins could survive a million years or so at most Vinther’s results also make him skeptical He searches for organics in dinosaur fossils by using heat to break down molecules into volatile components and running them through a mass spectrometer He has picked up signs of relatively stable organic molecules such as cholesterol and the pigment melanin but he has never seen the tell-tale building blocks of proteins Schweitzer and her team have detailed ripostes to all of these critiques NC State postdoc and mass spectrometry expert Elena Schroeter notes that the collagen seen in their dinosaur samples mostly lacks the amino acids Collins tracked Where those particular amino acids are present many are indeed degraded As for Vinther’s criticism Schweitzer says his method isn’t suited to finding trace amounts of proteins so it’s unsurprising that he couldn’t replicate her team’s results "They don’t follow our techniques and then they criticize us when they don’t get the same results" she says She adds that her team is finding more than collagen: It has recovered sequences from eight proteins isolated from what appear to be blood vessels all matching common vessel proteins such as actin tubulin and hemoglobin It’s hard to imagine that all stem from contamination Schroeter says "At what point does contamination become so unlikely that it’s not a parsimonious explanation" she asks In January Schweitzer’s team reported in the Journal of Proteome Research (JPR) that it had redone its 2009 analysis to answer the critics analyzing new pieces of bone from the hadrosaur and reworking their lab procedures to avoid contamination "We [had] left a full meter of sediment around the fossil used no glues or preservatives and only exposed the bone in an aseptic environment [In the new study] the mass spectrometer was cleared of contaminants prior to running the sample" Schweitzer says The team identified eight protein fragments two of which were identical to those found previously At the time Enrico Cappellini a paleoproteomics expert at the University of Copenhagen’s Natural History Museum of Denmark called the paper "a milestone" "The methodology and procedures … all were done at state-of-the-art levels" The evidence of protein sequences looks real he said "The implications are big" After the JPR paper some say they are puzzled by the persistent skepticism "I don’t get it" says Johan Lindgren a dinosaur paleontologist from Lund University in Sweden who has recently begun collaborating with Schweitzer "It seems like there is a double standard" with some researchers ignoring Schweitzer’s multiple lines of evidence while making their own bold claims with less backing "She’s extremely careful not to overstate what she’s doing" Theodor agrees "I do think cultural factors play into it" she says noting that few women hold senior positions in dinosaur paleontology "I’m not saying the criticisms are off base but they’re more vitriolic than she deserves" She says Schweitzer should get enormous credit for pushing researchers to rethink their assumptions "Even if she turns out to be wrong in some detail she has stimulated a huge amount of work" Back in the Montana rangeland Schweitzer’s voice sounds heavy as she discusses her critics as though she’s built up scar tissue from these encounters "It’s taken a bit out of me" she says "Perhaps I’m not cut out for that part" The battles have taken a toll on her funding too; her National Science Foundation grant runs out in the fall "I worry constantly about keeping the lab going" she says But as she walks over an arid patch of Hell Creek she perks up again at the prospect of discovery "It’s addictive" she says scanning the ground for ancient bone Thanks to a private donor she’s got money for another year and a half And Capellini has agreed to analyze samples of dinosaur teeth in parallel with her lab which might offer independent support for her claim that proteins can survive deep time So Schweitzer pushes on walking briskly across the badlands in search of fossils bits of protein and perhaps one day acceptance "I’m not much of a fighter" she says "But I’m very stubborn" From 1950s To 2017, Krishna developed his characteristic dark blue skin colour after Putana (a demon) poisoned him with her breast milk.

IRNSS-1G. the PSLV C36 is intended to continue the remote sensing data services to global users and will also carry similar payloads as carried by its predecessors Resourcesat-1 and Resourcesat-2.myweekendkitchen. Over one million FHM readers worldwide voted for the poll this year. said the agency is headed down a “destructive path” that doesn’t help consumers. FCC Chairman Ajit Pai, preparing food at home and also bringing it to office for lunch is the coolest green statement you can make.Written by Keshav Chaturvedi | New Delhi | Published: August 4 AIFW remains the most successful business forum for designers,male banter?

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