• The Action Protocol has been studied, reviewed and approved for the return to training of the LaLiga teams. This protocol will be informed and explained to all the Clubs and SADs affiliated with LaLiga in the next Division Boards that will be held next Thursday, and will be made available to the Higher Sports Council (CSD) and the competent health authorities.• It has been reiterated within the Executive Committee that before any decision on the return to the competition will be to what the health authorities have.LaLiga and AFE meet tomorrow after their fightsLaLiga and the Association of Spanish Soccer Players will meet again. It will be online tomorrow afternoon to continue addressing the solutions that clubs and players demand to alleviate the effects of the coronavirus crisis. Thebes, the president of the employers’ association, and David Aganzo, the maximum manager of the union, will face each other again after a little respite during this Holy Week and after the ‘Audios Case’ whereby its two institutions have denounced the Federation on the understanding that they recorded the last meeting of the Monitoring Commission without permission.The new meeting between LaLiga and AFE, to which Luis Gil and Diego Rivas will also join, It also comes after the disagreements between Thebes and Aganzo, which ended up breaking the economic negotiations on the ERTE (something that about 20% of the 42 professional entities have done so far) and the salary reductions to be applied in the event of losses (Thebes asked for 47% responsibility for the players and they 20% at the most and recovering 10% in the future). For this reason, at this Tuesday’s meeting It will only and exclusively discuss sanitary measures to apply, the return to training and the various calendars that LaLiga manages. in coordination with UEFA in order to restart the competition. LaLiga took a step forward this Monday after the meeting of the Executive Committee, by videoconference, in which Javier Tebas has agreed on his position on the latest events related to the return to training, the ERTE, the negotiation of the player’s salary reduction as well as the controversial meetings with the Federation and AFE. Six First Division clubs (Madrid, Seville, Betis, Valencia, Villarreal and Levante) and another six Second Clubs (Deportivo, Cádiz, Las Palmas, Alcorcón, Almería and Lugo) were summoned to this meeting.At the end of the summit, the employers has made an official statement in which it is recorded that He has denounced the RFEF for allegedly recording him without consent at a meeting, he has assured that he will not go to more meetings with Rubiales for COVID-19 and, in addition, he has announced that he already has a new health protocol ready for the return to training.Official statement from the LaLiga Delegate Commission“The LaLiga Executive Committee held today, has adopted the following agreements:• He remembers not attend the next meetings called by the RFEF of the “COVID-19 Monitoring Commission, after analyzing what happened regarding the biased and interested leak of the audios of said commission to the media.• Contact will be maintained with the RFEF, through the “Monitoring Commission” that is contemplated in the current Coordination Agreement signed last July 3, 2019 between LaLiga and the RFEF.• In view of such facts from LaLiga will adopt the appropriate legal measures, among which are both the filing of a complaint before the Higher Sports Council against the President and the Secretary of the RFEF for the commission of infractions of abuse of authority and carrying out acts that threaten the dignity and decorum of sports, as the complaint by the affected people of a claim before the Spanish Agency for Data Protection for violation of various provisions of the General Data Protection Regulation.
Eat like a hunter-gatherer and you’ll be healthier—so goes the thinking behind so-called paleo diets. But a new study suggests that humans who live in industrialized societies don’t have the guts to stomach a real hunter-gatherer diet. Compared with hunter-gatherers, industrialized peoples’ intestines have fewer kinds of microbes—and are missing at least one major group of ancient bacteria. Yet even with all of these extra microbes, hunter-gatherers have fewer gut ailments, such as Crohn’s disease, colitis, and colon cancer.Our bodies are home to trillions of bacteria—collectively known as the microbiome—but it’s unclear how our diet impacts the composition of these tiny organisms. Some studies have detected differences in the types of gut bacteria in obese and thin people, for example, while others have shown that hunter-gatherers harbor more diverse gut bacteria than do people in the industrialized world—a difference that may protect preagricultural communities from Crohn’s disease and colon cancer.In a new study published online today in Nature Communications, an international team of researchers offers the first comprehensive look at the full-scale diversity of gut microbes in one group of hunter-gatherers and how the bacteria unique to them might function in their guts and affect their health. Anthropologist Cecil Lewis of the University of Oklahoma in Norman and his colleagues set out to detect differences in the core gut bacteria in hunter-gatherers and farmers in Peru, and compared them with residents of Norman. The researchers traveled by canoe upriver into the Amazon to study the diet and health of the Matses community, who are among the last hunter-gatherers in the world; they still hunt monkey, sloth, alligator, and other game, as well as gather wild tubers in the forest and fish in the rivers.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)Getting “informed consent” from the Matses to gather their fecal samples, which are the best source of bacteria from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, was a challenge, Lewis says, so the anthropologists gave the Matses a crash course in bacterial biology by showing them gut microbes under microscope. Once they explained that the gut bacteria lived inside them and could affect their health, one Matses man asked if the gut bacteria were the reason he couldn’t drink milk anymore, even though he could as a child. (The answer is yes, in part, because gut bacteria influence how much gas is produced by people who are lactose intolerant.) The researcher collected samples from 25 Matses and also from 31 Tunapuco, a traditional community of potato farmers from the Andean highlands who also eat guinea pig, pork, lamb, and some cheese from cows. They also collected feces from 23 people living in Norman, mostly academics who eat processed foods, including canned fruits and vegetables and prepackaged meals, as well as meat and dairy products such as milk and cheese.Back in the lab in Norman, Lewis and his colleagues used state-of-the-art gene sequencing methods that allowed them to get long segments of the gene that is used as the standard for classification and identification of microbes, because it differs in various bacteria. They found that the hunter-gatherers’ and farmers’ gut bacteria were far more diverse than those in the people from Norman. The traditional groups have the most diversity in their microbiomes, including new types of bacteria that have yet to be named and several different strains of Treponema, spirochete bacteria that are usually absent in Western industrialized populations. There are strains of Treponema that cause disease, such as syphilis, but the strains found in the traditional people are more closely related to nonpathogenic strains in other mammals, such as pigs.The detection of several strains of Treponema in the Matses suggests this type of bacteria has been present in human guts for a long time, because it was also found in the GI tracts of the Hadza hunter-gatherers in Tanzania and in nonhuman primates. “Suddenly a picture is emerging that Treponema was part of core ancestral biome,” says co-author Christina Warinner, an anthropologist at the University of Oklahoma. “What’s really striking is it is absolutely absent, not detectable in industrialized human populations.”The team’s study also analyzed the function of the gut bacteria and found that the Treponema species in the Matses are most like those in the guts of pigs. There, the microbes play a role in digesting carbohydrates, or sugars. This suggests that the existence of Treponema “is likely a good indicator of a general high level of microbial diversity in the human gut,” says evolutionary anthropologist Stephanie Schnorr of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany. “Now it seems clear that their function is related to helping metabolize carbohydrates, and this can have a number of benefits and implications for host health.”The key question now is does the absence of Treponema leave industrialized humans without a valuable player in the metabolism of their food—and the prevention of autoimmune disorders, such as Crohn’s and colitis, for example? “What’s starting to come into focus is that having a diverse gut microbiome is critical to maintaining versatility and resiliency in the gut,” Warinner says. “Once you start to lose the diversity, it may be a risk factor of inflammation and other problems.” And trying to eat like our ancestors may not be enough to get the benefits of a true paleo diet and lifestyle. “So even if you could mimic a true paleo diet, you are still missing ancestral gut bacteria that were involved in food digestion in the paleo gut,” Lewis says.